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Grim Reaper

Grim Reaper

In Western cultures, the Grim Reaper is the most commonly known personification of death. Its current form as a macabre and sinister image has evolved over time, beginning as a feminine figure in the ancient world and transforming into the masculine form in ancient Greek literature. These personifications and images are preserved in art, literature, and film. In the future, the form assumed by this figure will naturally reflect the philosophies, ideologies, and technologies of the culture of the time, and the image of the death guide will reflect the notions of death held by tomorrow’s generations. The personified death image may be portrayed as an assistant or travel guide, or it may be a more diabolical instigator, a big brother, or a computer-generated entity that perpetrates the dance of death.

Before the 19th century, the Grim Reaper was more commonly referred to as an Angel of Death. This icon of death was a winged angel that waited to escort the living to their place in the afterlife. The image of this angel was much less menacing and gruesome than today’s Grim Reaper, a hooded and cloaked skeleton. The skeleton as a symbol resonates deeply within the human psyche, signi­fying the importance and the inevitability of death. The Grim Reaper carries a scythe or a sickle, an agricultural instrument that for centu­ries has been used to cut down and harvest crops. He uses his instruments to harvest or gather the living and take them to their death. Using various disguises such as illness, sudden accidents, and catastrophes, he randomly strikes and unquestion­ingly takes the lives of young and old, male and female, rich and poor, without discrimination.

The Grim Reaper’s modern appearance origi­nates in Greek literature and art, which associates the god Cronus with the passing of time. The god Cronus harvested crops with a sickle, which he later used to castrate his father, Uranus. Cronus later went on to swallow all of his children, except Zeus, out of fear that they might in turn retaliate against him in the same way he had retaliated against his father. Cronus is often seen carrying this scythe, a tool similar to the sickle, and is also depicted with an hourglass in his role as Father Time.

In oral tradition, some similarities between Cronus and the Grim Reaper developed, and that is why we often see the Grim Reaper brandishing the scythe. Sometimes, the Grim Reaper is also seen carrying an hourglass, an image intended to remind us that time never stops and that we are mortal. With each grain of sand that falls, we are moving closer to the end of our time on Earth.

Debra Lucas

See also Cronus; Dying and Death; Father Time;

Longevity; Satan and Time; Youth, Fountain of

Further Readings

Lonetto, R. (1982). Personifications of death and death anxiety. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46(4), 404-407.

Williamson, J., & Schneidman, E. (1995). Death:

Current perspectives. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

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